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  1. Combustion

Combustion

Combustion

Combustion or burning is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species. The release of heat can result in the production of light in the form of either glowing or a flame. Fuels of interest often include organic compounds (especially hydrocarbons) in the gas, liquid or solid phase.
 
In a complete combustion reaction, a compound reacts with an oxidizing element, such as oxygen or fluorine, and the products are compounds of each element in the fuel with the oxidizing element.

Complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve. In reality, as actual combustion reactions come to equilibrium, a wide variety of major and minor species will be present such as carbon monoxide and pure carbon (soot or ash). Additionally, any combustion in atmospheric air, which is 78 percent nitrogen, will also create several forms of nitrogen oxides.

In complete combustion, the reactant burns in oxygen, producing a limited number of products. When a hydrocarbon burns in oxygen, the reaction will only yield carbon dioxide and water. When elements are burned, the products are primarily the most common oxides. Carbon will yield carbon dioxide, nitrogen will yield nitrogen dioxide, sulfur will yield sulfur dioxide, and iron will yield iron(III) oxide.
 
Combustion is not necessarily favorable to the maximum degree of oxidation and it can be temperature-dependent. For example, sulfur trioxide is not produced quantitatively in combustion of sulfur. Nitrogen oxides start to form above 2,800 °F (1,540 °C) and more nitrogen oxides are produced at higher temperatures. Below this temperature, molecular nitrogen (N2) is favored. It is also a function of oxygen excess.
 
In most industrial applications and in fires, air is the source of oxygen (O2). In air, each mole of oxygen is mixed with approximately 3.76 mole of nitrogen. Nitrogen does not take part in combustion, but at high temperatures, some nitrogen will be converted to NOx, usually between 1% and 0.002% (2 ppm).[2] Furthermore, when there is any incomplete combustion, some of carbon is converted to carbon monoxide.

Incomplete combustion will only occur when there is not enough oxygen to allow the fuel to react completely to produce carbon dioxide and water. It also happens when the combustion is quenched by a heat sink such as a solid surface or flame trap.
 
For most fuels, such as diesel oil, coal or wood, pyrolysis occurs before combustion. In incomplete combustion, products of pyrolysis remain unburnt and contaminate the smoke with noxious particulate matter and gases. Partially oxidized compounds are also a concern; partial oxidation of ethanol can produce harmful acetaldehyde, and carbon can produce toxic carbon monoxide.
 
The quality of combustion can be improved by design of combustion devices, such as burners and internal combustion engines. Further improvements are achievable by catalytic after-burning devices (such as catalytic converters) or by the simple partial return of the exhaust gases into the combustion process. Such devices are required by environmental legislation for cars in most countries, and may be necessary in large combustion devices, such as thermal power plants, to reach legal emission standards.
 
The degree of combustion can be measured and analyzed, with test equipment. HVAC contractors, firemen and engineers use combustion analyzers to test the efficiency of a burner during the combustion process. In addition, the efficiency of an internal combustion engine can be measured in this way, and some states and local municipalities are using combustion analysis to define and rate the efficiency of vehicles on the road today.

Satronic Burner Controls

Satronic is a trademark of Honeywell from Switzerland and is specialized in control equipment for gas and oil burners. ITT Controls supplies these products such as burner sequence controllers, flame scanners, flame sensors, damper motors, electro-hydraulic actuators, multiblocs & gas train, gas solenoid valves, pressure switches, oil & gas filters, oil burner nozzles, burner fuel pump, combi stats, ignition transformers, ignition cables and ignition electrodes.

Satronic Burner Controls

Dia-Flo

ITT Controls also supplies products and components of Dia-Flo in the petrochemical and process industries. These products are often used and the diaphragm valves are regarded as the workhorses and foundation of the total product range.

Dia-Flo

Rombach

ITT Controls also supplies products of Rombach. The products from Rombach are designed to increase customer satisfaction and to reduce the overall cost. The meters are uniquely constructed to give utilities just that little bit extra they need in a complex and competitive marketplace.

The unique modular design of the products of Rombach ensures that individual installation requirements can be met.

Products of Rombach distinguish themselves because they are all modular.

The advantages of
products from Rombach, products ITT Controls can offer, are their compact size, better overall aesthetics, fewer leak points, easy operation, flexible piping configurations, long life, maintenance-free operation and a cost effective temperature compensation.

Besides natural gas Rombach products also can be used for other materials. Please inform the sales department which product is the most suitable for your application.

ITT Controls delivers besides products from Rombach virtually all products and components for the petrochemical and process industries including manual valves, filters, pressure regulators, butterfly valves, pressure switches, combination controls, electronic flame detection and control, pilot burners and burners, further inflammation and regulation , thermoelectric safety, heating controllers comfort control, measuring and test equipment and many other products for the petrochemical and process industries.

If you want more information on products, parts and accessories of Rombach in the oil and gas industry please contact the sales department at info@ittcontrols.com

Rombach
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